Who refused to sign the Indian Springs?

Who signed the Treaty of Indian Springs in Georgia?

This treaty between the federal government, represented by commissioners Duncan Campbell and James Meriwether, and a minority of Creek Indians, led by William McIntosh, was signed on February 12, 1825 and ratified by the Senate on March 7, 1825.

Who was the president that declared the Treaty of Indian Springs invalid?

Dear Mr President: John Quincy Adams. The Treaty of Indian Springs was signed on February 12, 1825. In it, 51 members of the Creek Nation, including Chief William McIntosh, agreed to give up all of the Creek land in Georgia.

Did William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs?

However, for his role in the first Treaty of Indian Springs, in 1821, McIntosh received 1,000 acres of land at Indian Springs and another 640 acres on the Ocmulgee River. … On February 12, 1825, only six chiefs, including McIntosh, signed the document.

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Who signed the 2nd Treaty of Indian Springs?

The Treaty of Indian Springs, also known as the Second Treaty of Indian Springs, was an agreement between the federal government and a minority of Creek Indians, led by William McIntosh, which sold the remaining Creek land in Georgia for $200,000.

Why did William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs?

Because McIntosh led a group that negotiated and signed a treaty in 1825 to cede much of remaining Creek lands to the United States in violation of Creek law, for the first time the Creek National Council ordered that a Creek be executed for crimes against the Nation. It sentenced him and other signatories to death.

What was William McIntosh known for?

William McIntosh (1775 – April 30, 1825), was also commonly known as Tustunnuggee Hutke (White Warrior), was one of the most prominent chiefs of the Creek Nation between the turn of the nineteenth century and his execution in 1825. He was a chief of Coweta town and commander of a mounted police force.

Who signed the Indian Removal Act?

The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy.

Who was removed by the Trail of Tears?

The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail commemorates the removal of the Cherokee and the paths that 17 Cherokee detachments followed westward.

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What role did McIntosh play in the Creek removal from Georgia?

William McIntosh was a Creek chief who signed the Treaty of Indian Springs. He signed it with his cousin, GA governor George Troup. This gave away the last remaining creek lands in GA and caused him to be excuted by his people.

What did William McIntosh fear?

William McIntosh feared the United States of America and the power that that nation had over the Creek People. This fear is what probably caused him to sign the treaty that surrendered most of Creek land to the Americans. He knew that the Creeks would not win in a war against such overwhelming odds.

How did McIntosh regain his status with the Creek?

After the war, the Creek Nation suffered through a terrible famine and McIntosh used this opportunity to regain his status in Creek society by befriending a U.S. Indian agent. Due to this alliance, McIntosh gained the influential position of allocating food and supplies to those Creeks in need.

Who was the leader of the Red Sticks?

William Weatherford (1780-1824) – also known as Red Eagle. Son of a Scottish trader and a Creek woman. Participated in the attack on Fort Mims and was the leader of the Red Sticks at the Holy Ground.

Who signed the Dancing Rabbit Treaty?

The main signatories included John Eaton, John Coffee, Greenwood Leflore, Musholatubbee, and Nittucachee. Nearly 200 other signatures are on the treaty.

Where did William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs?

The treaty was signed on January 8, 1821, at Indian Springs, Georgia. Treaty talks, which began in December 1820 at an inn owned by Lower Creek headman William McIntosh, involved representatives from the federal government, Georgia, and more than 20 Creeks led by McIntosh and Tustunnugee Hopoie (Little Prince).

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When were the Cherokee forced off their land?

In 1838 and 1839 U.S. troops, prompted by the state of Georgia, expelled the Cherokee Indians from their ancestral homeland in the Southeast and removed them to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma.