Gondwana broke up as these continents drifted apart at different velocities, a process which led to the opening of the Indian Ocean. In the late Cretaceous, approximately 100 million years ago and subsequent to the splitting off from Gondwana of conjoined Madagascar and India, the Indian Plate split from Madagascar.
How did the Indian Plate form?
The “India” landmass was once situated well south of the Equator, but its northern margins began to collide against the southward-moving Eurasian Plate about 40 to 50 million years ago (see text). The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau to the north have risen very rapidly.
What type of plate boundary is the Indian Plate?
Typically, a convergent plate boundary—such as the one between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate—forms towering mountain ranges, like the Himalaya, as Earth’s crust is crumpled and pushed upward.
What caused the Indian Plate to move?
The rifting is thought to be caused by the rising of a mantle plume which caused the Indian plate to drift northwards and resulted in the opening of the Indian Ocean. The velocity of the drifting of the Indian plate northwards was surprisingly high, 18 to 20 cm per year prior to the collision with the Eurasian plate.
How was the Indo-Australian Plate made?
The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. It was formed by the fusion of Indian and Australian plates approximately 43 million years ago.
When did India separate from Africa?
The breakup of Gondwana occurred in stages. Some 180 million years ago, in the Jurassic Period, the western half of Gondwana (Africa and South America) separated from the eastern half (Madagascar, India, Australia, and Antarctica).
How was India separated from Africa?
However, the southern plate carrying India underwent a radical change: About 80 million years ago, a collision with Africa cut that plate down to 3,000 kilometers — right around the time India started to speed up. The team believes the diminished plate allowed more material to escape between the two plates.
Why is India called a subcontinent?
India is a subcontinent located in South of Asian continent. It is considered a subcontinent because it covers an expansive area of land that includes the Himalayan region in the north, the Gangetic Plain as well as the plateau region in the south.
What plate is Japan on?
Japan sits on or near the boundary of four tectonic plates: the Pacific, North American, Eurasian and Filipino plates.
What plate is China a part of?
China is principally a part of the Eurasian plate, but the margins of the Indian and Philip- pine Sea plates are involved in the Himalayas and in the Coastal Range of Taiwan, respec- tively.